Maxmilián in imperial uniform with medals

899th meeting: Mexican Emperor

Archduke Franz Karl and his family (wife Sophie, Franz Josef and Elizabeth and their children Gisela and Rudolf, Maximilian and Charlotte, Karl Ludwig and Ludwig Viktor) in 1861
Photo: Wikipedia, public domain - public domain
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We introduce you to a remarkable personality, which, although not to the history of our country a lot in common, but since it belonged to the ruling family to us, we can - and we do not want - it omitted.

The world came with the name Ferdinand Maximilian Joseph Maria von Österreich. We will say to him, short Maximilian. Original profession: Austrian Archduke. Fate (and its own ambitions) but it finally caving to the other end of the world. He became later Maximilian I, Emperor of Austria. But we are also interested in what went before in the overseas throne.

Franz Joseph I in 1855
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"The Emperor Franz Joseph I began soon after he sat on the throne, to transform the monarchy according to their wishes and ideas especially beneath Prince Schwarzenberg, the prime minister and his most important mentor. Introduced a number of innovations, said the life of profound reforms, which modernized the empire and which degraded surviving remnants of feudalism in Austrian society. Simultaneously wanted exemplary punishment defeated Hungary. thought that by taming and intimidating that it expelled from their heads forever repeating the ideas of rebellion. entire country a wave of executions, military courts praised long-term prison sentences. terror of Champions, which reigned in Hungary, evoked fear except the hatred and outrage proliferated protests against excessive cruelty. Among those who disagreed with the drastic procedure Austrian government, was also the Archduke Maximilian. indignation made no secret of his loud and pronounced sympathy for the Hungarians punishable . no wonder that his opinions soon noticed the secret police and report it promptly report to the Emperor. Franz Joseph I. badly frowned as he read the message on the statements of his brother. At any criticism of its procedure in Hungary was extremely sensitive. "

Ferdinand Maximilian
Photo: Wikipedia, public domain - public domain
He was Franz Josef extremely sensitive to any disagreement with what who said what and who did - and did not it just Uher, as he writes in his book historian professor Jiří Pernes. Between two Archduke soon after the onset of Franz Joseph on the throne showed yet more latent jealousy. Manifested by a low but apparent theft. Henceforth, the two brothers has seen almost ... discussing together ... and the young ruler to give good care for his brother attractive as possible to the public and did not speak with her nezískával points. Whether for hostility concealed jealousy Maxmilianova the virtues, or perhaps it was the need to get rid of the eternal dug, I could play the role of an irrational sense of threat from Max's side, in each case, the ruler's dislike for his brother soon escalated so much that he wished was from Vienna as far as possible. Okay ... but where to put it? Franz Josef suddenly remembered an old Max's love.

Austrian frigate SMS Novara photographed in Sydney in 1858
Photo: Wikipedia, public domain - public domain
Her name is sea. And immediately after this came the idea, somewhat wryly his brother offered to meet young dreams. The proposal gave him almost an order: "You will travel while making a career in the Austrian Navy!" Active Max had just what to do, in addition to the tender hardly gave refuse ... between us: only eighteen Archduke could hardly expect more.
For many years clung to these two goals. He began to study the way to Greece and Turkey. Then luxurious stay in Trieste, as a lieutenant-line service started from scratch. Actually served in the crow's nest at first, scrubbing the deck, but it was a career officer in the Austrian quickly povyšovaného marina. Three years later, one brother named Lieutenant Commander on třístěžňové Minerva and the time it is translated by boat to Hips Kotor. Soon after the successful field extremely biased, while colleagues in arms popular Archduke Maximilian in just twenty-two years was promoted to the rank of Rear Admiral and Commander in Chief of the Austrian Navy. This post he held until his appointment as governor of Lombardy-Venetia - titular But he belonged to continue. Everybody's not like that. For example, the generals objected. She reproached him mainly youth, and too incompetent that sucker without proper training. But he surprised everyone as organizers of their talent and vehemence with which proved marina (Cinderella Austrian arms) zgruntu reorganize. His tenure with the Navy, while not long, but it began to be regarded as the father of modern battle fleet of the Habsburg Empire.

In the Austrian monarchy Navy was neglected child. Military doctrine said that a weapon of sheer necessity, while her only defense was the Dalmatian coast and local ports. However, a small part still wooden (and outdated) almost never left the Adriatic fleet, mainly because of Trieste. Franz Josef marina nefandil way. Man fascinated uniforms had in my closet almost all the uniforms of the world, but sailor - not one. Max actually sent orders to his business periphery. Crews are recruited from unreliable Italians, commanded the Italian General Staff and turned every Zlatko by the pastor in the army invested. Maximilian through his social talents proved during the apprenticeship to obtain an excellent position, whereupon the appointment of the commander in chief began to war with geronts the General Staff. In cooperation with an older friend, the next admiral (yet captain) Wilhelm von Tegetthoff wheedled finance in England ordered the first armored battleship to replace the old steam frigates. Austria in 1856 and won the first screw fighter, named after Marshal Radetzky. Jedenadevadesáti was armed with cannons. In addition, Max harbor and docks built in Pula, founded the Maritime Museum, the Oceanographic Institute, introduced German as commanding speech, on time even pushed the establishment of the Ministry of the Navy.

Amalie of Braganza
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Immediately after his first voyage to Greece and Turkey Maximilian, who discovered a passion for the passionate journey began to prepare frigates Novarro expedition to the New World. Which meant a voyage military character, it should be a scientific expedition, which Austria has failed to do. In the decisive moment, however, fell ill with typhus, so the way in the spring of 1851 took place without him. The Novara however served, he regarded it as his second home, because right after healing has done with her kind of way compensation, including Madeira, to Spain and Portugal. In Lisbon, Portugal - by the way - the first serious love. She was happy Amalie of Braganza, the Brazilian royal family, living there in exile. Lucky, started towards marriage, but was ultimately short. Resulted in rapid death of Princess. Tuberculosis. Sad story. Max on his first love could not forget. After the rest of his life he wore a ring that Amelia gave him a farewell.

In Granada, Spain then Archduke long contemplated the sarcophagi of their forebears, Johana Mad and Philip the Fair, the rulers of the Colombian times - just Filip marriage to Joan, princess of Castile, won the Spanish Habsburgs heritage. Surely you about it many times ... I later remembered as Mexican emperor. Starting their era began the first Spanish colonial Habsburci purport and the New World, where he, Maximilian, after centuries of their power back. Though not for long.

Kriehuber Josef Karl Ferdinand von Buol-Schauenstein
Photo: Peter Geymayer, Wikipedia, public domain - free work
Inspired by former Spanish rule over the oceans Max made another great voyage: in 1859 he went - as the first Habsburg - to Brazil. Experiences from this exotic journey was published in a work titled somewhat smetanovským. Not "The Kiss," but "from my life." Certainly not uninteresting that the writer Karl May you later in this travelogue Maximilian made a welcome source of cultural studies for their novels.
But now we are a little ahead of the course of events, since before the Archduke came on the scene of international politics. Just had ended one war, the Crimean. It took place in the 50th the 19th century.

At that time it was one of the few wars between European nations. Otherwise he was then in the Old World - exceptionally - peace. The vast majority of the fighting took place in the Crimea. The cause was a fight for territory Tsarist Russia Ottoman Empire. The Russians lost the fight. On the added hand, Turkey, France and Britain. Austria maintained the so-called strategy of armed neutrality, which greatly offended the existing Austrian allies, namely the Russians. Their Tsar Nicholas, who during the war with Turkey he died, were "heartbroken" betrayal of the Habsburgs, from which they did not produce the expected military aid. Similarly, the perceived lack of commitment by the Austrian and other participants in the war, namely France and England, condemning ambiguous position when ally signed a pact of friendship ... but when speaking with guns, stay away. In Paris after the war, a peace conference was held, and it angered her very haughty participants meeting Austrian Foreign Minister Buola-Schauenstein.

The Paris Peace Conference in 1856
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He behaved like a bull in a china shop, calculating a position of neutrality posed as a priority and wanted as a representative of "neutral ground" to be the main arbiter peace. To which no one but him jump.
They all had that arrogant Buola sick. So it was necessary to send to Paris for the peace conference someone talks conciliatory style kuloárovými paper over impending scandal. Certainly all suspects who it was. Yes, Maximilian. Charming Archduke done its job very well. Greatly helped neutralize acidic atmosphere. And yet still managed to charm the French Emperor Louis Napoleon III. and his wife, Empress Eugenie.

French Emperor Napoleon III. and his wife, Empress Eugenie (1865)
Photo: Wikipedia, public domain - public domain, Adolphe Eugène Disderi
Charles Louis Napoleon Bonaparte was the son of Louis, brother of Emperor Napoleon. After four years he served as president of the French Republic, carried out the coup and took the throne as Emperor Louis Napoleon III. (As Napoleon II. Was considered Francis, nicknamed Orlik, otherwise Duke zákupský). French emperor by his fellow Austrian Franz Joseph hated. Despised him.
Maximilian of the Paris Peace Conference with the same hostile passion, what to Louis Napoleon felt his older brother. "A small, slight figure, thoroughly Plain exterior, stretching, walking, ugly hands, shifty eyes look dull, everything that shows a person unable to impress a favorable impression," wrote Maximilian of their French hosts scornfully.
It did not take but a week, and Max began to change my mind. To her surprise, it completely conquered magic man who usurped the throne of France by force. "The pale man on short legs, with a large nose, after all, exudes a special charm. Can be very honest. Noble simplicity of character achieves a positive effect." The affection was unilateral - also Maximilian Napoleon aroused sympathy, and it is no wonder that the two men soon found common ground that the Austrian prince was achieved in the first French concessions and that unsuccessful negotiations to save something. "The Archduke's life, however, his diplomatic success plays a secondary role," he writes in his book about Maximilian historian lecturer Dr George Pernes. "His negotiations with Napoleon had fatal consequences for another reason: if these two ambitious men never met and have not seen each other for a time sympathy Maximilian would probably never let go in a vicious Mexican adventure that ultimately cost him his life."

Family Belgian King Leopold I (Queen Louise-Marie, Crown Prince Leopold, Prince Philip, Princess Marie-Charlotte)
Photo: Wikipedia, public domain - public domain
After this fateful meeting was followed by a second. This time, in Brussels, where Maximilian as in Paris twittered with the local ruler, King Leopold I. In addition there met him and his sixteen-year-daughter, to which all of a sudden fell in love and immediately began to think about the wedding. Again, be added that no Mexico would probably not take place if in the summer of 1856 two ambitious young people, Archduke Maximilian and Belgian Princess Charlotte met. Emperor Franz Josef, satisfied Max's steps to diplomacy and positive impressions from the inspection, which was performed by his brother officers subordinate naval forces in Trieste, he gave vent to their generosity (which otherwise conserved enough). Max decided to reward, and forthcoming marriage gave him exalting (though in fact poisoned) present - appointed him Governor-General of Lombardy and Venetia. Thus, the highest representative of the Austrian government in the northern provinces. Which became the beginning of March 1857, and three weeks later drove Maximilian (yet no bride) ceremony in Venice. He was received with icy, unfriendly cold. Optimist of his caliber in contempt but the Italians did not see more than punishment for mistakes predecessor: "Radetzky was rough soldier and will do so old. Rights It! Only the Italians know that instead of threatening saber marshal reign henceforth gracious hospitality in the country, quickly melts!"

A married Princess Charlotte. Seventeen girl and her husband of twenty-five, two inexperienced zealots bursting ideals meant to convert the world how good triumphs over evil, seizes the right things at the end. They began to bohatýrského match, which so far could not have predicted that it is only a rehearsal for a much more complex matches next. And that is a warning before too naive optimism.

Maximilian and Charlotte
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Maximilian tried to get the image in the eyes of Italians willing, inclusive reformer. He claimed that the previous system of paramilitary Austrian authorities considered unsustainable and fundamentally it means change. Sagging Lombardy and Veneto to bring prosperity. He promised to make municipal elections, the first in many years. He turned to the leading lawyers and economists to work together on economic reforms. He urged educators, artists and intellectuals not to get involved in the debate about the future. Victims of heavy flooding in the Fall render assistance on their own. From Vienna Treasury wheedled funds for the restoration of works of art. And so on and so forth. Spender initiative and ideas. In vain, however.

Even beardless Ferdinand Maximilian of Lazarus at the villa in 1852
Photo: Wikipedia, public domain - public domain
The result of all the efforts of Maximilian and Charlotte was the maligned home ... dodging them Italians common and noble ... and what is most important: intrigued against organized queue nationalists. Adherents of the Risorgimento (unification or Italy) wanted no reform of donated foreign hands - did not wish to leave nothing but a "usurper," an early unity and independence. Around the tenth anniversary of the Revolution - in 1858 - swept northern Italy by storm and wave of protests. Maximilian and Charlotte ostentatiously špacírovali after liveliest boulevards Venice and Milan, as if to make it clear that the Italian people, but people went in mourning, with tricolors, přehlíživě and bodyguards warned the governor let nekoleduje assassination. In the gathering atmosphere Maximilian drove to Vienna to convince his brother about the need to introduce extensive autonomy in the provinces. The Emperor acknowledged that "Italy is difficult terrain," but in the same breath said: "Autonomy? Absolutely not!" And Maximilian vypoklonkoval convinced that it is a youthful nonsense and just more softness and friendliness is the culprit Max's Italian complications.

Napoleon III. at the Battle of Solferino, oil on canvas, John-Louis Ernest Meissouier, 1863
Photo: Wikipedia, public domain - public domain
Italy began to be mass-tossed by storms, and so got rid of Franz Joseph Maximilian Office of the Governor General, Austria declared war on Sardinia-Piedmont, and then went into it not only against the Italians, but also against the French as Napoleon III. Italians promised help, Vienna was defeated at the Battle of Magenta and Solferino even then, thus lost Lombardy and Emperor of the French at the peace conference proposed that the Austrian government was removed and Veneto and declared an independent state - under the rule of the Archduke Maximilian. "There! Veneto remains mine! Otherwise, we will continue the war!" said resolutely defeated Austrian emperor. And once again had the feeling that maybe everything is plotting his younger brother.

Author: Josef Vesely